A Companion to Applied Ethics (Blackwell Companions to

Utilized or useful ethics might be the biggest development region in philosophy this present day, and lots of matters in ethical, social, and political existence have come less than philosophical scrutiny lately. Taken jointly, the essays during this quantity – together with assessment essays on theories of ethics and the character of utilized ethics – offer a state of the art account of the main urgent ethical questions dealing with us today.

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Berkeley CA: University of California Press Katz J with Capron A and Glass E S (1972) Experimentation with Human Beings. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Kelman H (1968) A Time to Speak: On Human Values and Social Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Maclntyre A (1984) After Virtue, 2nd edn Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press Rawls J (1971) A Theory of Justice. Cambridge MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (rev edn 1999) (1996) Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press Richardson H S (1990) Specifying norms as a way to resolve concrete ethical problems Philosophy and Public Affairs, 19: 279-310 (2000) Specifying balancing and interpreting bioethical principles Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 25: 285-307 Further reading Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (1996) Final Report.

Oxford: Blackwell (forthcoming) Deontology. Oxford: Blackwell (ed) (forthcoming) Virtue (Ethics). Oxford: Blackwell 37 3 P t Riht d Wlf Rditibti JEREMY WALDRON I ll d iti t it it ith b j t t I th U i t d Stt th 1999 fi l t h t th i t l 21 illi fili ith h h l d i i f $100000 d th 16 illi f i l i ith h h l d i l th $ 1 7 0 0 0 M t f th l t t lii i t j d d b ffiil " t li" (tiltd tl b the US authorities as around $ 1 7 5 2 4 per annum for a family of four) Defining poverty is of course difficult and controversial But we may understand it in a h d d l t d i t tht i b f i h h l d t tdl k h d hi bt tifi i d f f thi b (hlt i i l l titi f d bt t bth b i dil hlt bt t bth dil hlt d i i l l triti f d bt t d t lthi d ) P fili th th h d h i d th hih bl th il t t i f ll the needs of all their members and devote an amount to items going well beyond need that would be sufficient if spent differently to satisfy all the basic needs of many many more N dbt h ld b id b t th dfiti M h i l h d il i t i t h d i d f idi b l t dfiti f " t " lid f ll iti d i t (S 1992) Thi i tl b t i dfid i t f d d t t t f d t d t b lti t th i t f i it Wht t b i di ltil b tti lik A r i it iht b d i f f t f ht t b i di l it ( B b k 1987) O i l l it i td tht we should pin down the concept to survival so that we count something as a need only if a person will die without it But even this remains ambiguous How ikely must death be and how imminent?

Aristotle's is a distinctive kind (a paradigm perhaps) of non-moral virtue ethics "nonmoral" again because although Aristotle's translators frequently use "moral i t " t i l t h t h i tlki b t ll f h t tht d ith h i Aittl d t l t th it t ti f l l d h i h ll tbl l Vit f Aittl di iti t h ht i fi bl (kalori) f it k dt id h t i b Th ti ti i ht N i t h lld " k d i " ideal ith t t hih b btt t l tht 34 THEORIES OF ETHICS li ith ilt F A i t t l th ti thil ti h esteem pride and disdain or contempt not guilt respect selfrespect and moral indignation Virtues are excellences {arete) traits that is that make something an excellent i t f it k i d It i it i kif f l t h t it h h d t h t it t ll I l k hih t i t ll ( l l t ki) i lti t thi' f t i (ergon) h t i t i tiit A A i t t l bli t h t th h t i t i tiit d i t i t i fh bi i ti ( i ) tht dititil h f f hi (f ti l d i t h l bl fi (kl)) h ld t h t th it tit f character that is settled dispositions to choose certain actions and avoid others as intrinsically noble or base We might put his point by saying that human excel lences are states of character concerned with choices that are themselves guided by idl fh ll I l l it thi i h ( l ) h idl A l t h h it b tid i Aittl' t t l l i l f t i i t i f h t di t h i h th i thi tht h bi i h t l f to b it d t b b d A l it thi b put forward simply as a normative view about which traits in human beings are worthy of esteem (or disdain) Analogously a moral virtue ethics is a theory of what is worthy of distinctively moral esteem that is traits that are worthy of esteem in a moral agent E l f h i b f d i Libi d th i h t t h t Sttih h i l h F i Hth Th H t h d t h t th b i l h i t f b l th d i t b f i t th d k th h M l t h hld i t iril f t bt f ti tit f h t l th d i t d d t f h bi d th t i t bi Th i i h i h th f it thi iht b ti of case or practical ethics First nonmoral virtue ethics reminds us that questions of right and wrong are far from the only or perhaps even the most important ethical questions we can ask in specific cases Thus it might be that failing to provide i i f i t l id t li ld h d ffri l t h h t i l ll th l ift i f l d lftifti O if th i t i t thi t h t b d jtl t t d l t t i till ift i i t t t i t d t d th i t l l t i t tht t dd ith l i i fll tifi h if S d ti f th i t i i d d t h ht action it is appropriate to take in specific cases In considering what to do it may be helpful to ask what a virtuous person or someone with a specific virtue (say generos ity) would do in that case This may simply be a useful heuristic but it may also flt th A i t t l i i t h t th i ff l t i thil iht t tht b d d ll lid b h l k th id " " f th i t A L i A t i td t h "If h t k 'll k " id b t j Thid i t thiit tf d ti f it t i l id t it ( ll i h t ) ti bt t f ht k ti 35 STEPHEN L DARWALL it ll i h t Th it b hld tht ti i th iht or appropriate thing to do in some case or circumstance just in case it is what the virtuous person would (characteristically) do in that circumstance (Hursthouse 1999) Such a view might depart from the letter of Aristotle's position since he idtifd it ttld d i i t i t h ifi ti f thi k ( b l ) Thi ld t k hih t i t it d d hih ti bl t i N t h l i it ld h l d t h t t th it f ti i ibl t h h th id d t f it h i ld i it l t Aittl' i f d t l iit W h t i t it thi i th id t h t id t sial questions of case ethics can be gained only by looking to the virtues or the virtuous person as a model Writers on case ethics therefore look to virtue ethics less frequently than they do t th thil t h i ill h th d ith i f l iht d If j d t f l bliti iliitl diti hldi th tbl f li it ill b bl t d d tht tifi ti f th j d t b f l t d i t t h t th b j t t th d t i i i l t It i thi d d tht h l d t th k i d f normative moral theories that have been advanced by contractarian/contractual ists consequentialists and deontologists In each case the goal has been to articu late actionguiding principles of right conduct that can be grasped and applied itht il it th th th j d t f ll t t l t Rf A b G E M (1958) M d l h i l h Philosophy 33 1 1 9 Aristotle (1998) Nicomachean Ethics trans W D Ross New York: Oxford University Press Bth J (1970) Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation d J H B dH L A H t L d Athl Dancy Jonathan (1993) Moral Reasons Oxford: Blackwell Social Philosophy and Policy 14 D l l Sth (1997) S l f i t t d lf Cbid U i i t P 15878 Al i Ell F P l ( d ) Self-interest C b i d CO W t i P (1998) Philosophical Ethics B l d (2002) Welfare and Rational Care Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press G t h i D i d (1986) Morals by Agreement O f d C l d P H Gilbrt (1975) M l ltii d f d d The Philosophical Review 84 3 2 2 I d i l i EST H k t t H b b Th (1994) Leviathan d E M C l Hursthouse Rosalind (1999) On Virtue Ethics Oxford: Oxford University Press K t I l (1998) Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals d d t M G N Y k Cbrid U i i t P McDowell John (1979) Virtue and reason The Monist 62: 3 3 1 5 0 IN U i i t fNt D M l t A l d i (1981) After Virtue N t D BbbMrill Mill J h S t t (1957) Utilitarianism d Ok P i t I d i l i The Philosophical Review 95 163207 Rilt P t (1986) M l li Rawls John (1971) A Theory of Justice Cambridge MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University 36 THEORIES OF ETHICS (1993) Political Liberalism.

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