A History of Modern Germany: 1800 to the Present by Martin Kitchen

By Martin Kitchen

That includes revised and prolonged assurance, the second one variation of A heritage of recent Germany deals an obtainable and engagingly written account of German heritage from 1800 to the current.

  • Provides readers with a protracted view of contemporary German historical past, revealing its continuities and changes
  • Features up to date and prolonged assurance of German social switch and modernization, category, faith, and gender
  • Includes extra extensive insurance of the German Democratic Republic
  • Examines Germany's social, political, and fiscal history
  • Covers the unification of Germany, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the 3rd Reich, post-war department, the cave in of Communism, and advancements due to the fact that re-unification
  • Addresses local heritage instead of targeting the dominant function of Prussia

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Sample text

The latter were self-consciously elite institutions that, like the universities, emphasized the humanities, particularly Greek and Latin. All teachers were required to have a university degree. A school-leaving certificate known as the Arbitur, which soon became the prerequisite for entry to university, was introduced in 1812. Teachers in the elementary schools (Volksschule) were also required to have a diploma from a teacher-training college (Normalschule) where they absorbed a modified version of the teachings of the great Swiss educational reformer Pestalozzi.

Finally, at the end of February 1813, he signed an alliance with Russia whereby he agreed to cede part of Prussia’s Polish provinces to Russia in return for territorial compensation elsewhere in Germany. ” Universal military service was introduced that included volunteer units known as the Free Corps, made up largely of the urban middle class. The poorly trained and ill-equipped Landwehr proved to be an ineffective fighting force. A new medal for valor, the iron cross, was struck as a symbol of the struggle for king and fatherland.

The emphasis here was on detailed, objective, awe-inspiring descriptions of the otherness of nature, which was far removed from the earlier Romantic view of nature as a sentimental reflection of the self. The Biedermeier ideology served to hide from view the profound changes that were happening within society as a result of the “dual revolution”: the democratic and emancipatory forces unleashed in 1776 and 1789, coupled with the radical social consequences of the industrial revolution. Whereas the Biedermeier writers were conservatives, the radical authors in the “Young Germany” group such as Ludwig Börne, Georg Büchner, Karl Gutzkow, Heinrich Heine, and Georg Herwegh belong to the pre-March.

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