Atmospheric aerosol properties by Kirill Ya. Kondratyev, Lev S. Ivlev, Vladimir F. Krapivin,

By Kirill Ya. Kondratyev, Lev S. Ivlev, Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varostos

This booklet presents the 1st complete research of ways aerosols shape within the surroundings via in situ procedures in addition to through shipping from the outside (dust storms, seas spray, biogenic emissions, wooded area fires etc.). Such an research has been through the glory of either statement information (various box observational experiments) and numerical modelling effects to evaluate weather affects of aerosols taking into account that those affects are the main major uncertainty in learning average and anthropogenic reasons of weather switch.

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Sec. 1 Spectral distribution of short-wave radiation ¯ux divergence and the role of aerosol absorption in the cloud-free atmosphere. Within the CRE programme, during the CAENEX-72 expedition, observational data were obtained for the quantitative evaluation of the spectral distribution of the radiation ¯ux divergence [49]. 4 mm under desert conditions [59, 60, 62, 64, 70]. The observational complex included measurements of the vertical pro®les of the upward and downward spectral short-wave radiation ¯uxes, the angular distribution of spectral brightness of the surface±atmosphere system, spectral brightness of the horizontal orthotropic reference plate irradiated from above, as well as auxiliary meteorological parameters and aerosol.

A very important conclusion was drawn concerning the spatial structure of the aerosol concentration ®eld. The facts of the strati®ed vertical structure of aerosol has been reliably established; changes are wide ranging in the aerosol concentration, not only with altitude but also in horizontal direction (for particles with r > 0:2 mm from N ˆ 1 cmÀ3 to N ˆ 1,000 cmÀ3 ), as well as the dependence of aerosol concentration ®elds on latitude, season, time, and nature of the surface [14, 45, 61]. As a result of the ®rst CAENEX-70 observational programme, due to the summertime aerosol measurements, the vertical distribution of short-wave radiation ¯ux divergence in the free atmosphere and over desert was obtained for the ®rst time.

Analysis of approximate schemes of consideration of interaction between the surface and the atmosphere and their experimental testing [17, 19, 51]. (8) The heat balance of the Earth±atmosphere system; the heat balance system's components, their variability depending on the determining factors; the spatial± temporal meso and macrostructure of the ®elds of the heat balance system's components [47, 54]. (9) Study of the effects of various factors of atmosopheric energetics on the atmospheric thermal regime and dynamics.

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