By Kirill Ya. Kondratyev, Lev S. Ivlev, Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varostos
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Additional info for Atmospheric aerosol properties
Sec. 1 Spectral distribution of short-wave radiation ¯ux divergence and the role of aerosol absorption in the cloud-free atmosphere. Within the CRE programme, during the CAENEX-72 expedition, observational data were obtained for the quantitative evaluation of the spectral distribution of the radiation ¯ux divergence . 4 mm under desert conditions [59, 60, 62, 64, 70]. The observational complex included measurements of the vertical pro®les of the upward and downward spectral short-wave radiation ¯uxes, the angular distribution of spectral brightness of the surface±atmosphere system, spectral brightness of the horizontal orthotropic reference plate irradiated from above, as well as auxiliary meteorological parameters and aerosol.
A very important conclusion was drawn concerning the spatial structure of the aerosol concentration ®eld. The facts of the strati®ed vertical structure of aerosol has been reliably established; changes are wide ranging in the aerosol concentration, not only with altitude but also in horizontal direction (for particles with r > 0:2 mm from N 1 cmÀ3 to N 1,000 cmÀ3 ), as well as the dependence of aerosol concentration ®elds on latitude, season, time, and nature of the surface [14, 45, 61]. As a result of the ®rst CAENEX-70 observational programme, due to the summertime aerosol measurements, the vertical distribution of short-wave radiation ¯ux divergence in the free atmosphere and over desert was obtained for the ®rst time.
Analysis of approximate schemes of consideration of interaction between the surface and the atmosphere and their experimental testing [17, 19, 51]. (8) The heat balance of the Earth±atmosphere system; the heat balance system's components, their variability depending on the determining factors; the spatial± temporal meso and macrostructure of the ®elds of the heat balance system's components [47, 54]. (9) Study of the effects of various factors of atmosopheric energetics on the atmospheric thermal regime and dynamics.