Atmospheric Aerosols: Properties and Climate Impacts by Olivier Boucher

By Olivier Boucher

This textbook goals to be a one cease store for these attracted to aerosols and their effect at the weather approach. It starts off with a few basics on atmospheric aerosols, atmospheric radiation and cloud physics, then is going into innovations used for in-situ and distant sensing measurements of aerosols, info assimilation, and discusses aerosol-radiation interactions, aerosol-cloud interactions and the a number of affects of aerosols at the weather process. The publication goals to interact these drawn to aerosols and their affects at the weather method: graduate and PhD scholars, but in addition post-doctorate fellows who're new to the sector or wish to increase their wisdom. The ebook contains routines on the finish of such a lot chapters.

Atmospheric aerosols are small (microscopic) debris in suspension within the surroundings, which play a number of roles within the weather approach. they have interaction with the strength finances via scattering and absorption of sunlight and terrestrial radiation. in addition they function cloud condensation and ice nuclei with affects at the formation, evolution and houses of clouds. ultimately aerosols additionally have interaction with a few biogeochemical cycles. Anthropogenic emissions of aerosols are accountable for a cooling impact that has masked a part of the warming as a result of elevated greenhouse influence considering pre-industrial time. traditional aerosols additionally reply to weather adjustments as proven by means of observations of prior climates and modelling of the long run climate.

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Example text

The density of black carbon is not well measured and is likely to vary with the combustion conditions. 9 gcm−3 . The size of black carbon particles vary with the source type but is typically of 100 nm. Very quickly the black carbon gets coated with organic carbon and sulphate which condense at their surface. This creates an internal mixture which modifies the microphysical and optical properties of the black carbon, that also becomes more hygroscopic. 4 Organic Aerosols Although the presence of organic material in the aerosol has been known for a long time, it has taken decades for aerosol research to measure the concentration and composition of organics more accurately (Jacobson et al.

4 Aerosol–Cloud–Radiation Interactions 17 where B is the vertically-integrated aerosol concentration (also called the aerosol burden or column), S is the source flux and R is the removal or sink flux. g. g. in units of kg for B and kg s−1 for fluxes). If the source and sink terms are averaged over a long enough period, they should be balanced and the residence time can be computed from either one or the other quantity. Schematically, in the troposphere, the smallest and largest aerosols have residence times of hours to days, while the bulk of the aerosols in the intermediate size range has residence times of days to 1–2 weeks.

2008). Terrestrial and marine ecosystems are also an important source of aerosol precursors. Some species of phytoplankton produce dimethylsulphide (DMS), a gaseous compound that is oxidized in the atmosphere to form sulphur-containing aerosols. Plants and algae emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are oxidized in the atmosphere and condense and contribute organic material to the atmospheric aerosol. These aerosols are referred to as secondary biogenic aerosols. Their sizes are typically of the order of a few tenths of a micrometre.

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